SCALE SCIENCE

 

Deposition of calcium carbonate mineral scale from crude oil can be a serious production problem. The ENERCAT tool minimizes the deposition of this scale by transforming calcite to aragonite both downhole and at the surface. Unlike paraffin and ashphaltene that require The ENERCAT installation at depth, calcium carbonate mineral scale can be prevented at surface temperatures and pressures.

The Science Hypothesis

The science behind The ENERCAT’s reduction of scale is that it transmits waves that are resonant with low-frequency vibrational motions of the brine component of bulk crude oil fluid. The ENERCAT utilizes physics to drive chemistry influencing the transformation of calcite to aragonite. The molecular oscillation frequencies of The ENERCAT are ‘tuned’ to match the frequencies of the crude oil brine.

This increases the amplitude of the brine’s oscillations at preferred frequencies providing the energy necessary to cause aragonite to form instead of calcite. The waves transmitted by The ENERCAT drive low-frequency vibrational motions of the bulk fluids that favor the formation of crystal polymorphs that have a high probability of remaining in solution.

Characteristics of Calcite and Aragonite Polymorphs

Calcium carbonate can adopt several crystal polymorphs (see figure below). The two most common are calcite and aragonite. Since they both contain the same ions, they also have the same charges, but the charges are not distributed the same in each crystal polymorph due to differing crystal structures. Calcite’s charge distribution covers most of its trigonal crystal surfaces, causing more attraction between crystals. Consequently, calcite has a high probability of depositing on pipeline materials especially metal.

The charge distribution of aragonite on the other hand, is localized, occurring at the ends of its long and thin orthorhombic acicular crystals causing less attraction between crystals. This results in a high probability of aragonite remaining dispersed in the solution and exhibiting properties of a lubricant in some cases. Installation of The ENERCAT yields oil brine samples that are dominated by aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate that remain dispersed in the solution.

SEM Image of Calcite Crystals                       SEM Image of Aragonite Crystals

SCALE CASE HISTORY

This animation is based on a case history of a pumping well with a serious scale deposition problem.

This scale deposition problem was solved by installing the ENERCAT.

Full Case History Here

For further information Contact our Sales Office

ECONOMICS

 

 

 

The ENERCAT is unusual, because it contributes to increased revenue and decreased cost. Even more unusual is the measurable benefit for the environment with The ENERCAT.

As oil prices decline and profit margins tighten, these inverted relationships become more and more critical as summarized in the Value propositional list below.

Decreased Cost

  • Reduced downhole chemical costs
  • Reduced hot oiling/knife cutting costs
  • Reduced downhole heater costs
  • Reduced flow line cleaning costs
  • Reduced surface facilities maintenance cost
  • Increased availability of field personnel
  • Delayed abandonment costs

Increased Revenue

  • Increased booked reserves
  • Increased field life
  • Increased well life
  • Delayed abandonment
  • Increased field and well EUR
  • Increased enhanced recovery tax credit
  • Increased recovery factor
  • Reduced operating costs
  • Reduced workovers
  • Reduced rig costs
  • Extended pump life
  • Extend sucker rod life
  • Reduced refurbishment
  • Reduced replacement costs
  • Stabilized production
  • Increased average production
  • Decreased viscosity
  • Decreased pour point
  • Reduced workover downtime
  • Reduced refinery’s need to extract chemicals from oil and water

Increased Environmental Responsibility

  • Reduced Chemical use
  • Increased Field life
  • Reduced Environmental disturbance
  • Reduced vehicle transport and use
  • Increased Environmental reputation
  • Increased Environmental proactive compliance

ENVIRONMENTAL

 

 

In the last decade, environmental issues have become a serious public relations and economic challenge for the oil and gas industry.

The ENERCAT meets these challenges by reducing the use of chemicals and hot oil during production.  The ENERCAT achieves this by reducing or preventing the down-hole deposition of paraffin, asphaltene, and scale.

The ENERCAT is a proactive approach with significant public relation benefits.

The ENERCAT produces a measurable benefit for the environment by eliminating potential down-hole chemical cross contamination.

TESTIMONIALS
  • ""The well has performed flawlessly and has encountered no down time and has achieved optimum production. We will be installing ENERCAT tools in the remainder of our wells and would recommend this technology to anyone who is dealing with paraffin problems.""

    - Arnie Hansen, President – Reef Resources LTD

  • "" I am satisfied that these ENERCATs prevent wax and asphaltine accumulation and it is our intention to run them during completion operations on new wells as standard procedure and during workover operations on existing production.""

    - Allan B. Seaman, President – Chipman Energy Limited

  • ""I calculated the increased revenues plus wax-cut savings, paid for the tools in just over a month. Needless to say, we will be running Enercats on all our new wells and whenever we have a workover on an existing well, send me some more!""

    - Drew Cadenhead, COO – TAG Oil LTD

  • ""Since running the Para-Tech tools the wells have had no down-time and are averaging 55 BOPD with no sign of wax down-hole, in meters or in flow lines. Pigging of a 1000 meter oil line, which used to take hours was done in minutes after running your tools. Quadron Resources Ltd. will definitely be using Para-Tech tools in the future.""

    - Ronald R. Talbot, President – Quadron Resources LTD

  • ""I am pleased to inform you that the tools continue to perform beyond our expectations. In the wells where tools have been installed we no longer have any indication of paraffin/scale deposition in either well bores or flowlines, and all previous treatments have been discontinued.""

    - C.R. Gulliford, Production Foreman – Anderson Exploration Ltd.

  • ""Thank you for your recent call to inquire about the continued performance of the ENERCATs that we installed 3.5 years ago. The units have continued to provide the wax reduction initially seen when they were installed. No chemical program has been initiated and the levels of wax obtained by pigging are minimal.""

    - Robert L. Nelson, Corrosion Technologist – Nexen Canada Ltd

  • "" The system eliminated our wax problem. From going from hot oiling the tubing on a regular basis to not having to hot oil once in three years, it's easy to see the benefits of the tools. They saved on costs, intensive labor, downtime and reservoir damage.""

    - Max Mellafont, Apache Canada LTD

  • ""Historically we had to hot oil the wells every 10 weeks or the wells would wax off. It has been 35 weeks since we have installed the ENERCATS and we have neither hot oiled the wells or pigged any of the flowlines and have not encountered any wax deposition problems. We are currently starting a program where all 65 Response wells in Cardium Field will have an ENERCAT tool on them.""

    - Mike Medwid, President – Response Energy Corporation

  • ""The production from the well has remained steady, i.e. there is no discernable decline in production. The tool is effective in inhibiting the deposition of paraffin in tubing and on sucker rods.""

    - H.E. Leith, Operation Supervisor – ISH Energy LTD